The Statistics Canada (StatCan) Census is conducted every 5 years with the purpose of counting the people living in Canada. This is known as a 'Quinquennial' Census. The process of taking a Census is called an 'Enumeration'.
The purpose of the Census is to provide information about the demographic and social characteristics of the people of Canada. The results of the Census goes to the federal, provincal, territorial and local governments to support their planning and administrative activities.
The most recent StatCan census was conducted in 2011. The next Quinquennial Census will be conducted in 2016.
By comparison, the United Status Census is conducted once every 10 years and is called a 'Decennial' Census.